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Joaquín Unzué chairs the Committee Organiser of FIGAN 2013 in Fair Saragossa
Help Privacy Terms. The Lancet , , Nanotechnology 24 7 , , Santillana , Journal of nanobiotechnology 12 1 , 15 , Ecotoxicology 24 4 , , Scientific reports 6, , Aquatic toxicology , , Reactive and Functional Polymers , , Economia de escala no processo de resfriamento do leite. PloS one 10 8 , e , This database was built from official information of national accounts, and comprises a set of annual input-output tables for the period of , at the level of 56 sectors of economic activity.
The intermediate emissions were taken according to intermediate consumption share on total consumption. The emissions from fossil fuel consumption were distributed amongst the economic sectors according to their share on intermediate consumption, by type of fuel, on monetary values. In the same year, according to World Resources Institute, the country emitted Figure 2 represents the Brazilian GHG emissions per major economic sectors.
Source: WRI This is due to enteric fermentation of livestock, animal waste management, agricultural soils, rice cultivation, burning of agricultural wastes MOSIER et al. Is the environmental cost generated by agriculture and livestock reversed in economic returns through the generation of employment and income, for instance?
To answer this question, the results of the emissions multiplier reported in Table 1 have been confronted with the results of traditional employment and income multipliers. Sector 2-Livestock and Fishing presents the greatest emissions multiplier, 4. The largest indirect effect of emissions 1. As matter of fact, according to Costa et al. However, as will be seen later, Sector 2 has shown few important linkages with the other sectors of the production structure. Figure 3 depicts the field of influence calculated in its traditional fashion, i.
This analysis defines the importance of each of the intersectoral relations of purchase and selling. In order to facilitate interpretation, the results for each production link were highlighted in color scales 8 indicating the above-average fields of influence, that is, the most important linkages for the economy as a whole. Reading is similar to the input-output matrices, in other words, the lines are formed by input seller sectors, while the columns are input buyer sectors. It is noticed that sector 2 - Livestock and Fishing presents few important linkages when compared to other activities.
The relations with the sector 37 - Parts and accessories for automotive vehicles are classified as very strong. Figure 4 shows the result of the field of influence of sectoral GHG emissions. It can be observed that the most intensive sectors in GHG emissions 2 - Livestock and Fishing, 24 - Cement, form the only important sectoral connections, especially sector 2 that showed very strong linkages. It is important to stress that linkages are established on the demand side, along with the columns 2 and 24, which highlights the greater intensity of emissions during the production of inputs and outputs.
On the other hand, 2 - Livestock and Fishing, and 24 - Cement, as suppliers, have very strong connections along the whole economy.
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A contribution of this approach is the identification of these two sectors as the most important on the transmission of GHG intensive inputs to the others sectors. Mitigation of GHG emissions on these sectors could spread to the whole economy. The share of Livestock and Fishing in GHG generation is proportionally higher than its contribution to its generation of employment and income. Nevertheless, one must consider this activity as a significant part of the so-called agribusiness.
For Bustamante et al. Thus, it is relevant to note that although investments in other sectors of the economy generate greater impacts in the productive structure, they have lower GHG emissions levels. The same applies to exports. Indeed, the increase in exports of higher added-value food products over the exports in agriculture can decrease the intensity of emissions from foreign trade PERUSSO, To do so, we have used the methodology of the field of influence and impact multipliers applied to the input-output analysis weighted by the coefficients of GHG emissions.
The result indicates that this sector has decisive contributions to the emissions, while its impact on the economic activity is less pronounced. The immediate implication is that investments in other sectors of the economy would result in better economic and environmental performance.
In this sense, the largest share of higher value-added food in the exportation agenda as substitute for agricultural products may not only favor the generation of employment and income, but also decrease the intensity of emissions from foreign trade. With the objective of bringing new results to the literature, we intend to perform similar exercises to the ones applied here in future works, but this time considering the economic relations in agribusiness given its relevance to the Brazilian economy.
Spatial statistical analysis of land-use determinants in the Brazilian Amazonia: exploring intra-regional heterogeneity.
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Policy Research Working Paper , n. Aboveground forest biomass and the global carbon balance.
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Oxford University Press: New York, Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , v. MCTI, Input-output analysis : foundations and extensions.